CONSTRUCTION / BRICKWALL
Brick Wall Construction work done may include new work, additions, alterations, or maintenance and repairs. Activities of these establishments generally are managed at a fixed place of business, but they usually perform construction activities at multiple project sites.
Production responsibilities for establishments in this sector are usually specified in (1) contracts with the owners of construction projects (prime contracts) or (2) contracts with other construction establishments (subcontracts).
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar to build up brick structures such as walls. Brickwork is also used to finish corners, door, and window openings, etc. in buildings made of other materials.
Where the bricks are to remain fully visible, as opposed to being covered up by plaster or stucco, this is known as face-work or facing brickwork.
Wall thickness and construction
The simplest type of wall is constructed in solid brickwork, normally one brick thick. Bricks are laid in rows known as courses, the arrangement of headers and stretchers in each course gives rise to different patterns or bonds.
In a cavity wall, two layers (or leaves) of brickwork are tied together with metal ties, with a cavity of 2 to 4 inches that may be filled with insulation.
A non-structural outer facing of brick is tied back to an internal structure: a layer of blockwork, timber or metal studwork etc.
Bond: a pattern in which brick is laid.
Stretcher: a brick laid horizontally, flat with the long side of the brick exposed on the outer face of a wall.
Header: a brick laid flat with the short end of the brick exposed.
Soldier: a brick laid vertically with the narrow (“stretcher”) side exposed.
Sailor: a brick laid vertically with the broad side exposed.
Rowlock or Bull Header: a brick laid on the long, narrow side with the small or “header” side exposed.
Shiner: a brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad side exposed
There are two main types of clay bricks: pressed and wire-cut. Pressed bricks usually have a deep frog in one bedding surface and a shallow frog in the other. Wire-cut bricks usually have 3 or 4 holes through them constituting up to 25% of the total volume of the brick. Some ‘perforated’ bricks have many smaller holes.
There are three main categories of use, and both pressed bricks or wire-cut brick types are used in all three categories:
Facing brickwork is the visible decorative work.
Engineering brickwork, (using engineering bricks) often seen in bridges and large industrial construction but may also be hidden in ground works where maximum durability is required, e.g., in manhole construction.
Common brickwork is not usually seen and is used where engineering qualities are not required; below ground in domestic buildings and internal walls, for instance.
Frog up/down. A frog
is a recessed part of a surface of a brick. Pressed bricks are laid ‘frog up’ when maximum strength is required especially in engineering work. This method also increases the mass of a wall and decreases sound transmittance. Pressed bricks may be laid frog down; this method is favoured by the bricklayer, since less mortar is required for bedding. There may also be a marginal increase in thermal insulation due to the entrapped air pockets. A disadvantage of this method is that, with bricks having a very deep ‘V’-shaped frog, there may be some difficulty in making reliable fixings to the wall when the fixing hits an air pocket.
Bricks may be laid either way up but some types of wire cuts have a textured (combed) face, creating folds in the face of the brick, which is directional. It is advisable to lay these bricks with the folds hanging downward to maximise the weathering characteristics of the brick.
Ties or Cavity
Ties are used to tie layers of brickwork into one another, to form a structural whole. A common type is a figure-eight of twisted wire, in general stainless steel to avoid failure due to corrosion. The loop at either end is buried in the mortar bed as the wall is built up.
is a mixture of sand, lime, and Portland cement, mixed with water to a workable consistency. It is applied with a bricklayer’s trowel, and sets solid in a few hours. There are many different mixes and admixtures used to make mortars with different performance characteristics.